Postscript and its Benefits

Adobe PostScript is the worldwide printing and imaging standard. It is widely used by print service providers, publishers, corporations, and government agencies around the globe, giving you the power to print visually rich documents reliably. Adobe Postscript printing technology is licensed to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) for building high-performance printing systems and print workflow solutions. As a scalable architecture, it can be easily integrated into a wide range of devices and technologies while maintaining the high quality and performance.
It has become the printing and imaging technology of choice for corporations, publishers and government agencies throughout the world. 75 % of all commercial publications are printed on Adobe PostScript devices. These include
• black/white printers,
• colour printers,
• image setters,
• latesetters and
• direct digital printing systems.
By the way, Postscript is not limited to be used in printers or other devices used in the professional printing process. Also computer screens have been driven by Postscript.
The Postscripts language has had two major upgrades. The first version, known as PostScript Level 1, was introduced in 1984. Post script 1 was implemented by the Apple on the Apple LaserWriter printer. Postscript supported many new features at that time like outline fonts and vector graphics so it became popular among graphic printers. The structure of the Postscripts language, which is similar to a conventional computer programming language, meant that these advanced features could be used in a very versatile and creative manner to create complex images and designs. Apple continued to upgrade this language and introduced the Apple LaserWriter Plus. The new printer had more memory and many more outline fonts.
Nowadays, Postscript has become an industry standard for the typesetting of books, magazines and other complex publications.
PostScript Level 2
PostScript Level 2 was introduced in 1991, and included several improvements: improved speed and reliability, support for in-RIP separations, image decompression (for example, JPEG images could be rendered by a Postscripts program), support for composite fonts, and the form mechanism for caching reusable content.
The disadvantage of Postscripts was its speed. Postscript Level 1 required an enormous amount of processing power, and was often very slow. The capabilities of the various releases were also confusing, as the language was enhanced as each new printer was equipped with PostScript, extensions to PostScript were created to cope with colour, patterns, printers with multiple paper trays, duplex etc. PostScript Level 2 incorporates all the enhancements made to the original PostScript, setting a new baseline for the language. PostScript Level 2 is entirely backwards compatible with the original PostScript, and will produce the same image for a job as a PostScript Level 1 printer.
PostScript Level 3
Postscript level 3 was introduced in 1997, supports more fonts, better graphics handling, and includes several features to speed up PostScript printing.
PostScript 3 (Adobe dropped the "level" terminology in favor of simple versioning) came at the end of 1997, and along with many new dictionary-based versions of older operators, introduced better color handling, and new filters (which allow in-program compression/decompression, program chunking, and advanced error-handling).
The new graphics capabilities include
• smooth shading,
• idiom recognition,
• masked images,
• finer colour controls,
• superscreens, and
• fast image.
Other improvements of PostScript Level 3 include
• In–RIP Trapping,
• direct PDF printing, and
• DeviceN.
In–RIP Trapping is a new capability of the PostScript 3 interpreter that executes trapping commands at the raster image processor (RIP), automating complex and time consuming prepress tasks. Trapping is specified, then rendered at print time rather than as a separate production step prior to RIPping. Direct PDF printing is an optional capability of the Adobe PostScript 3 interpreter that improves workflow productivity by allowing the RIP to accept and print files in the Portable Document format (PDF) without
printing through an application – the PDF files don’t have to be opened with an application and then be printed from that application but can be sent directly to the RIP.
DeviceN is a new Level 3 operator that handles any number of colours, from duotones and tritones, to Haxachrome™ and beyond, in a composite workflow. This feature is supported by Adobe Photoshop 5.0. It makes prepress applications easier to use and
more efficient, representing all colour on one single page, instead of using one page per colour.

Benefits of Adobe Postscript are :
  • Quality. Adobe Postscript was designed from the outset to work seamlessly with every major operating system and color management system and prints anything, from everyday business correspondence to complex colorful brochures. The printed version always looks exactly as it does on-screen without reformatted pages or misplaced artwork.
  • Network. With support on every major computer platform Adobe Postscript devices are ideal for networks large and small.
  • PostScript became commercially successful due to the introduction of the graphical user interface, allowing designers to directly lay out pages for eventual output on laser printers. However, the GUI's own graphics systems were generally much less sophisticated than PostScript; Apple's QuickDraw, for instance, supported only basic lines and arcs, not the complex B-splines and advanced region filling options of PostScript. In order to take full advantage of PostScript printing, applications on the computers had to re-implement those features using the host platform's own graphics system. This led to numerous issues where the on-screen layout would not exactly match the printed output, due to differences in the implementation of these features.
  • Print documents regardless of printing device computer platform or operating system. This is device independence. Adobe Postscript language file is independent of the device that created it and the device that prints it.
  • Print documents not created by the user including documents sent by email imported from new media such as CD-ROM or downloaded from the Internet.
  • Select the best device for users' needs from a wide variety of Adobe Postscript devices currently available.
  • Print easily across networks large or small which incorporate a variety of computers operating systems, applications and printing systems anywhere in the world.
  • Adobe Postscript printers and systems work independently of any network configurations ensuring seamless operation in any environment.
  • Print in color with the assurance that regardless of device the colors in the output will be what the user intended.
  • Performance. Adobe continuously optimizes the Adobe Postscript system to enhance performance. The flexibility of Adobe Postscript offers manufacturers the freedom to optimize the printing environment with technologies such as memory reduction compression and coprocessors.
  • Compatibility. Whether using Microsoft Windows Apple Macintosh, UNIX, OS/2, DOS, or a networked combination, Adobe Postscript delivers consistent high-quality results.
  • Typically, PostScript programs are not produced by humans, but by other programs. 

PostScript Level 3 offers the following improvements over Level 2.
1. Faster printing and improved quality
2. New features to support the increasingly complex documents available via the Internet, such as three-dimensional images.
3. For complex documents, PostScript Level 3 processes each component as a separate object to optimize imaging throughput.
4. The resident font set will be expanded to provide compatibility with the resident fonts of all leading operating systems, enhancing performance by reducing font downloading.
5. PDF has been integrated into Adobe PostScript Level 3.
6. Ease of use, ease of connection and ease of printer management all in one environment, including Web based printer management, support for all industry standard remote management technologies, and a single step CD-ROM installer for all drivers, fonts and value-added software.
7. PlanetReady Printing: Allows printing technology to meet local language needs world-wide. 
PostScript Fonts
PostScript is an object-oriented language, meaning that it treats images, including fonts, as collections of geometrical objects rather than as bit maps. PostScript fonts are called outline fonts because the outline of each character is defined. They are also called scalable fonts because their size can be changed with PostScript commands. Given a single typeface definition, a PostScript printer can produce a multitude of fonts. In contrast, many non-PostScript printers represent fonts with bit maps. To print a bit-mapped typeface with different sizes, these printers require a complete set of bit maps for each size.
The principal advantage of object-oriented (vector) graphics over bit-mapped graphics is that object-oriented images take advantage of high-resolution output devices whereas bit-mapped images do not. A PostScript drawing looks much better when printed on a 600-dpi printer than on a 300-dpi printer. A bit-mapped image looks the same on both printers.
Every PostScript printer contains a built-in interpreter that executes PostScript instructions. If your laser printer does not come with PostScript support, you may be able to purchase a DIMM that contains PostScript.
Encapsulated PostScript is File format of Adobe's PostScript page description language used in high quality computer printers. EPS is device independent, images can be transferred between different applications as well as sized and printed on different (EPS-compatible or emulating) printers, without any loss of image quality. It exploits the full capabilities of the device it is used on. A typical usage of EPS is to save an illustration created in a drawing program as an EPS file and to import it into a page layout program such as InDesign or QuarkXPress. The layout artist would place and resize the image, which would either be the embedded preview or rendered directly from the PostScript code. The EPS images would be saved in the page layout program.
It can contain any combination of text, graphics, and images. An EPS file is the same as any other PostScript language page description, with some restrictions.
An EPS file must be a conforming file, that is, it must conform to the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions (DSC). At a minimum, it must include a header comment,%!PS-Adobe-3.0 EPSF-3.0, and a bounding box comment,%%BoundingBox: llx lly urx ury, that describes the bounds of the illustration. (The specification does not require the EPSF version, but many programs will reject a file that does not have it.)
The EPS file should make no environment-sensitive decisions (the importing application may be trying to attain some special effect, and the EPS program shouldn't mess this up), although it can use some device-dependent tricks to improve appearance such as a snap-to-pixel algorithm.
The EPS file must not use operators that initialize or permanently change the state of the machine in a manner that cannot be undone by the enclosing application's use of save and restore (eg. the operators starting with "init" like initgraphics). As a special case, the EPS program may use the showpage operator. The importing application is responsible for disabling the normal effects of showpage.
The EPS file can contain any combination of text, graphics, and images. An EPS file is the same as any other PostScript language page description, with some restrictions.

EPS files also frequently include a preview picture of the content, for on-screen display. The idea is to allow a simple preview of the final output in any application that can draw a bitmap. Without this preview the applications would have to directly render the PostScript (PS) data inside the EPS, which was beyond the capabilities of most machines until recently. Another advantage of the image preview is that if the graphic contained by the EPS is not to be modified itself but e. g. only to be placed inside a page layout using a layout software, the computer has less work to display only the small size preview instead of the high resolution image.
There are three preview formats providing the preview option for different platforms:
• PICT (Apple Macintosh),
• TIFF (IBM compatible, especially Microsoft Windows),
• EPSI (platform independent).
PICT is a graphics file format introduced on the original Apple Macintosh computer as its standard metafile format. It allows the interchange of graphics (both bitmapped and vector), and some limited text support, between Mac applications, and was the native graphics format of QuickDraw. With the change to Mac OS X, PICT was dropped in favour of Portable Document Format (PDF) as the native metafile format, though PICT support is retained by many applications as it is so widely supported on the Mac.
A widely used bitmapped graphics file format developed by Aldus and Microsoft that handles monochrome, gray scale, 8-and 24-bit color. TIFF allows for customization, and several versions have been created, which does not guarantee compatibility between all programs.TIFF files are compressed using several compression methods. LZW provides ratios of about 1.5:1 to 2:1. Ratios of 10:1 to 20:1 are possible for documents with lots of white space using ITU Group III and IV compression methods (fax).
Portable Document Format (PDF)
Portable document format, a universal computer file format that preserves all the fonts, formatting, colors, and graphics of any source document, regardless of the application and platform used to create it; the open de facto standard for electronic document distribution worldwide.
A PDF file delivers the single “digital master” for use in electronic, printed, and mixed workflow environments, ensuring a consistency across all media types. The Adobe PDF file format is ideally suited for technical publications, as it can include photographic images, diagrams, graphs etc. The PDF document can be widely distributed across many computer platforms. To read the PDF format, you require a copy of the Adobe acrobat reader, which can be obtained free of charge from the Internet or from many magazine publications on distributed CD–ROM.
The PDF combines three technologies:
1. A sub-set of the PostScript page description programming language, for generating the layout and graphics.
2. A font-embedding/replacement system to allow fonts to travel with the documents.
3. A structured storage system to bundle these elements and any associated content into a single file, with data compression where appropriate.
PostScript Printer Descriptions (PPDs)
PostScript Printer Description (PPD) files are created by vendors to describe the entire set of features and capabilities available for their PostScript printers. It is a small file that contains information about the characteristics of a certain PostScript printer. These informations are used by the PostScript printer driver to provide full access to the printer’s features

    Spot Color

    In offset printing, a spot color is any color generated by an ink (pure or mixed) that is printed using a single run. Spot colors are special pre-mixed inks used instead of, or in addition to, the process color (CMYK) inks. Each spot color requires its own plate on the press. If you are planning to print an image with spot colors, you need to create spot channels to store the colors. More advanced processes involve the use of six spot colors (hexachromatic process), which add Orange and Green to the process (termed CMYKOG). The two additional spot colors are added to compensate for the inefficient reproduction of faint tints using CMYK colors only. Spot color printing is effective when the printed matter contains only one to three different colors, but it becomes prohibitively expensive for more colors. However, offset technicians around the world use the term spot color to mean any color generated by a non-standard offset ink; such as metallic, fluorescent, spot varnish, or custom hand-mixed inks.
    Most desktop publishing and graphics applications allow you to specify spot colors for text and other elements. There are a number of color specification systems for specifying spot colors.
    Creating Spot channel in Adobe Photoshop
    You can create a new spot channel or convert an existing alpha channel to a spot channel
    First choose Window > Channels to display the Channels palette. Do one of the following
    create a channel:
    • Ctrl-click (Windows) or Command-click (Mac OS) the New Channel button in the Channels palette or click the pop-out menu in the Channels palette.
    • Choose New Spot Channel from the Channels palette menu.
    New Spot Color in Adobe Illustrator
    • Ctrl-click (Windows) or Option-click (Mac OS) the New Swatch button in the Swatches palette.
    • Ctrl-drag (Windows) or Command-drag (Mac OS) the color from the toolbox or Color palette to the Swatches palette. Or, if you selected an object, Ctrl-drag (Windows) or Command-drag (Mac OS) the object to the Swatches palette.
    • Select New Swatch from the Swatches palette menu. Select Spot Color for Color Type. Set additional swatch options if needed and click OK.
    You can find some predefined spot colors, such as colors from the TOYO, PANTONE, DIC, and HKS in the "libraries".
    are defined using Lab values.
    Soft Proofing of Spot Colors
    Remember that spot colors (gold, silver, fluoresent) can't be reproduced on a monitor exactly because they exist outside the gamut or color range of monitor and other proofing devices.

    Kyocra Copiers Error, How to Reset

    kyocera machines have a self diagnostic function to displays an error code whenever a problem occurs. Low level error codes can be reset by restarting the machine but higher risk level codes (C6000, C6020, C6030, C6050, C6100, C6200, C6300 etc) need to be reset by pressing some keys in a particular sequence. Before we go into the detail of reset procedure, let have a look at the root cause of these errors.

    1. Unstable power source
    2. Low/High voltage
    3. Broken thermistor wire
    4. Poor contact in the thermistor connector terminals.
    5. Heater lamps are broken or not installed correctly.

    Before resetting "6XXX" series code, make sure that defective parts have been replaced/repaired.
    Reset Procedure:
    Enter 1087-1087 (1087 twice) from the keypad.
    Enter 163 by using keypad.
    Press "Start" (the green button) twice.
    The machine will restart automatically.

    Bizhub 250c Troubleshooting

    Ineo 250 machine is equipped with a self diagnostic funcion. It automatically discovers any problem during and after the intializing process. Simple problems can be solved by the user, but If a malfunction that cannot be corrected by the user occurres, the “Malfunction detected" code appears. The machine displays an abort code (CFXXX) on the Control Panel as it becomes unable to process tasks properly through its software control. When the system program is aborted, check the electrical component, unit, option, and connection relating to the specific type of the abort condition. Some important codes are given below:
    C0001 LCT Connection can not be established
    C0102 LCT Vertical Transport Motor Error
    C0204 Tray 2 Elevator failure
    C0206 Tray 3 Elevator failure
    C0208 Tray 4 Elevator failure
    C0209 LCT Elevator Motor malfunction (Elevator malfunction)
    C0210 LCT ascent motion failure
    C0211 Manual Tray Rise Descent Error
    C3751 High temperature is detected (Fusing Roller)
    C3752 Pressure Roller high temperature
    C3851 Fusing roller low temperatre
    C3852 Press roller low temperature
    C4551 Laser Unit Problem (Cyan)
    C4552 Laser Unit Problem (Magenta)
    C4553 Laser Unit Problem (Yellow)
    C4554 Laser Unit Problem (Black)
    If an abort code is displayed than machins stops to work. Some abort code are:
    CF001 CT_SingleList Table Abnormal
    CF002 CT_DoubleList Table Abnormal
    CF003 CT_DoubleList Table Abnormal
    CF004 CT_Queue Full Abnormal
    CF011 ArrayLink Abnormal
    CF012 FAT Link Abnormal

    KM 2550 Error Code C6000, How to Fix

    Sorry but the article you are looking has been removed. You can visit this link to find an updated article:
    How to reset fixing error on Kyocera Mita

    Benefits of the XPS Printer Driver

    Benefits of the XPS Driver:

    Improved color printing

    High-fidelity print output

    Faster printing of documents with rich graphics

    Improved color printing

    The operating system can communicate a broader range of color information from applications to inkjet printers that use more than four ink colors (known as wide-gamut printers).

    The advanced color capabilities available in XPS make Windows Vista a great platform for printing photos with more lifelike output.

    High-fidelity print output

    The XPS print infrastructure enables high-fidelity output by reducing or eliminating image data conversions and color space conversions that typically occur during printing.

    The benefit for users is that smooth shadings, fades, and glow effects used in modern documents print just as intended, without loss of image fidelity or color fidelity.

    Faster printing of documents with rich graphics

    With XPS-enabled enterprise class printers—available now from many printer manufacturers—the time spent waiting to finish printing a rich, color graphics document is dramatically reduced.

    Consider a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation that has the same color background repeated across 30 slides.

    Before XPS, that enterprise printer would render that same color image 30 times, creating a massive "spool" or print file (and a long wait for everyone else that needed the printer). These massive spool files were also a tax on network bandwidth.

    With XPS, the color image is sent to and rendered by the printer once.

    Konica 7020/7030 Tips and Repair

    Konica 7020 is small size digital machine. Toner makes 26000 copies at standard A4 ratio. Developer life if about 200, 000. Drum life is 600,000 copies approximately. After 100,000 copies, the machine requires preventive maintenance including heat roller, pressure roller, fuser web, cleaning web, cleaning roller and heat sleeves.
    How to change Developer:
    Remove cover after removing two screws on the developer unit. Replace the developer with a new one and run the following simulation:
    Press 3 and 6 simultaneously and turn the machine ON.
    Select HV adjustment,
    Press Next untill you see "L Detection"
    Press the start key.
    Machine should display "OK".
    Do not perform this process if you are not a technician.
    Copy Quality Adjustment:
    You may adjust copy density within the "36" mode.
    Common Error messages:
    Upper paper feed lift problem
    Lower paper feed lift problem
    Lower DB lift problem
    Drum temperature too high
    PCL connector problem
    E26-1, -2, -3
    Toner detection problem
    Charge corona problem
    Transfer Corona problem
    High fuser temperature problem, bad thermister
    F 18-1
    Upper paper feed lift problem
    F 26-1
    Toner density level is low. No toner.
    F 28-1
    Charge Corona problem, check any leakage
    F 34-2
    High Fuser Temperature
    E35-1, 35-6
    Low fuser temperature
    Open thermistr1.
    F 37-1
    Replace fuser cleaning web and reset the web counter in 36 mode.
    How to reset Fusing Codes:
    Press 2 and 5 simultaneously and turn on the machine ON. Dip swich 3, bit 1 is the fuser reset command, change 0 to 1, and press "ON".

    What is Linux?

    Linux is an operating system for computers that was initiated by the Finnish student Linus Benedict Torvalds. He had begun to develop a Kernel for a new operating system in 1991. The Kernel is the essential part of each Unix based operating system. It is the heart of the system. The Kernel is responsible for:
    • The table of processes.
    • The memory management.
    • The management of the multitasking- and multi-user capability.
    • The management of the mass-storage systems.
    • The hardware-drivers for printers, modems, etc.
    However, Linux is far more than only the Kernel. Linux is a complete operating system that was developed over the years by many people. This is completed by applications like the XFree86™, the X Windows System for PC based computers, the word processing and layout application TEX or the StarOffice™, and (of course) games. The development of the Kernel is still coordinated by Linus Torvalds. He implements every change of the Kernel by himself. The special quality of Linux is the fact, that Linux basically is a free system. Therefore, many developers that were keen about the idea of free software, worked on Linux over the years for free.
    Linux distributions are predominantly known for their use in servers, although they are installed on a wide variety of computer hardware, ranging from embedded devices and mobile phones to supercomputers,[3] and their popularity as a desktop/laptop operating system has been growing lately due to the rise of netbooks and the Ubuntu distribution of the operating system.
    The name "Linux" comes from the Linux kernel, originally written in 1991 by Linus Torvalds. The rest of the system, including utilities and libraries, usually comes from the GNU operating system announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. The GNU contribution is the basis for the alternative name GNU/Linux.
    The development of UNIX began in 1969 by the MULTICS developer Ken Thompson. He tried to create an easy-to-use operating system for mainframe computers without the typical batch operation. In the times before UNIX, most of the operating systems were batch operating systems. This means that you had to “write” the application that you want to run on a computer onto a punched card or onto a batch of punched cards. The result was usually printed out. If there was an error, you had to replace or change one or more of the punched cards and start over again. This system was lengthy and expensive so people wanted a system were more people can work in dialogue with the computer. The first step in this direction was the operating system called “MULTICS”. However, MULTICS was hard to handle and still batch operated.
    The first version of UNIX was written in the programming language Assembler. Assembler is a programming language that is close to the computer platform on which it is installed. To provide
    independence of the computer platform, the UNIX was re-written in “C”. “C” is a programming language that was developed in 1971 by Dennis Ritchie. In 1974, UNIX was described for the first time. At this time, it had multi-user and multi-tasking capabilities. Every user had his own
    “home directory” with his files; no user could access files of other users. That was elementary for a multi-user operating system. Multi- user operating systems were needed urgently because many people had to share one mainframe computer. Ken Thompson developed the UNIX system for his employer, the Bell Laboratories. Bell Laboratories is a 100% subsidiary company of AT&T. The Bell Laboratories gave the documentation for UNIX and the source code for nearly the cost price to universities. Besides, AT&T was doomed in an Antitrust-procedure in 1956 to give away licenses on all his patents. Therefore, many different UNIX systems came into being. These systems are all UNIX-systems but differ in details.

    The Common UNIX Printing System ("CUPS") is a portable printing system for UNIX-Systems. It is developed by Easy Software Products. It is going to replace the old Line printer daemon ("LPD") and to become the new standard printing system on Linux/UNIX. CUPS is based on IPP (Internet Printing Protocol), an extension of the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP), and gives you the opportunity of the full control over every printer in your network. IPP is designed to provide remote printing services and is very close to become the standard network printing system on all operating systems. Also, Windows 2000 is going to support IPP as network printing protocol.
    Besides IPP, smb, socket, serial, parallel and USB (Universal Serial Bus), CUPS also supports the old LPD/LPR system, wherefore you can use the LPR/LPD command set to work with your printers, if you have to. CUPS is designed to be compatible with it but some tools like Berkeleys lpc can be used for system control only.  The CUPS software can be used either as server (in most cases) or as client, so there is no need to have different software for each purpose.
    CUPS is designed to use PPD files (PostScript Printer Description) to make printers work with UNIX. The server generates its own driver for each printer from a given PPD file to make it available in your network. No additional driver for your clients is needed. In most cases, PPD files designed for Windows NT will work fine without any changes. CUPS is provided under the GNU GPL (General Public License) and the CUPS API's (Application Programming Interface) are provided under the GNU LGPL, so it may be used in commercial applications.
    You can use a variety of tools to administer printers in CUPS. Some are special to your distribution, some are free and some are commercial. We tested CUPS mostly on a PC running SuSE Linux.We cannot say much about the use of CUPS with any other Linux distribution like RedHat or Linux Mandrake, but it should be very similar on any other system.
    Two ways on how to install a printer are shown in the following:
    1. a GUI based installation (using the ESP web interface)
    2. an installation with command line tools
    GUI based installation example
    AS mentioned before, the ESP web interface is included in any CUPS version. You can use it for printer administration and job management. To show this example, we used the web interface provided by CUPS. It is accessible via Port 631, the standard port for IPP and CUPS. It is no problem if you have CUPS and other servers on the same machine while using this port.
    1. Just type the following URL:
    if you are working locally on your server
    This procedure will lead you to the starting page of the web
    interface.  Choose "Manage Printers" here to get to the printer overview.This screen shows you all printers installed on your system and their current status. Printers marked green are ready to print, printers marked red with an open tray are stopped. In that case you have to check whether there is a problem 
    2. In order to install a new one, choose "Add Printer" here.
    3. Then you have to give a name to your new printer.
    4. In this step you have to choose the type of connection that you are using for the printer you like to install. Possible settings you can choose are:
    • Disk File
    • App Socket /HP Jet Direct
    • Internet printing protocol
    • LPR/LPD Host or printer
    • Parallel or serial ports
    5. Now you have to put in a valid IP-address and a remote queue name for your printer.
    6. Now choose your manufacturer. All the manufacturer names offered in this list and the model
    names offered in the list in Step 7 are generated by CUPS while using the PPD files stored in 
    /usr/share/cups/model/[name of manufacturer]
    If your printer does not appear in this list, please make sure that there is a PPD file for it in this location. If it is not, get one and just copy it to this location.

    7. Now you have to choose a printer. If your printer does not appear in the list you have to install a PPD file on your system. To install a PPD you have to copy it to
    and restart your CUPS server with the commands
    Linux: # /etc/init.d/cups restart
    Linux: # rccups restart
    The last one does not work on every system, but in SuSE Linux it does. You need to be logged in as root to do that (or use the “Speruser” command SU).
    Now your printer is installed and ready to be configured.

    DTP applications

    The following is a list of major desktop publishing software. A wide range of related software tools exist in this field, including many plug-ins and tools related to the applications listed below.
    There is some overlap between desktop publishing and what is known as Hypermedia publishing (i.e. Web design, Kiosk, CD-ROM). Many graphical HTML editors such as Microsoft FrontPage and Adobe Dreamweaver use a layout engine similar to a DTP program. However, some Web designers still prefer to write HTML without the assistance of a WYSIWYG editor and resort to such software, if at all, solely for complex layout that cannot easily be rendered in hand-written HTML code.
    There are several different DTP applications to produce professional layouts. They are distinguished by their different functions and manufacturers. Some of them are even from the same manufacturer like the Adobe products PageMaker, Indesign and Framemaker. In
    this module, it is impossible to describe all functions and features for each program. For detailed information, visit their web pages. We can only give an overall view relating to their biggest differences. The most popular DTP applications are:
    • Adobe PageMaker
    • Adobe InDesign
    • Adobe FrameMaker
    • QuarkXPress

    Differences of DTPs to Word processors

    While desktop publishing software still provides extensive features necessary for print publishing, modern word processors now have publishing capabilities beyond those of many older DTP applications, blurring the line between word processing and desktop publishing.
    In the early days of graphical user interfaces, DTP software was in a class of its own when compared to the fairly spartan word processing applications of the time. Programs such as WordPerfect and WordStar were still mainly text-based and offered little in the way of page layout, other than perhaps margins and line spacing. On the other hand, word processing software was necessary for features like indexing and spell checking, features that are today taken for granted.
    The possibilities of DTP applications are more powerful than the ones of text processors like Microsoft Word or WordPerfect. The tasks of text processors are, among other things, to register and to save text. The capability of text processors to arrange text is sufficient concerning the printing of these files on a laser- or inkjet printer, but not for extensive documents and professional printouts. Professional printouts are usually made with offset printing. Therefore, any newspaper- or magazine publisher uses a DTP application.
    The benefits of DTP applications in comparison with text processors
    • WYSIWYG ability (What You See Is What You Get).
    • Possibilities to judge the printout (Soft proof).
    • More possibilities to manipulate the typography (kerning, spacing)
    • Text and pictures are placed in frames.
    • Text- and picture frames are objects which can
    • More possibilities to design the layout.
    • Possibilities to adjust and control the pictures and illustrations
    related to their colours (colour management).
    • Exact positioning of objects (text, pictures) with the help of grid-
    and auxiliary lines.
    • Possibility to place objects outside of the document temporarily in
    order to use the whole area of the screen.
    • Tool palettes to manipulate objects.
    As computers and operating systems have become more powerful, vendors have sought to provide users with a single application platform that can meet all needs. Software such as Open Writer and Microsoft Word offers advanced layouts and linking between documents, and DTP applications have added in common word processor features.

    What is DTP?

    In the age of computers, it is relatively simple to create documents and to produce professional printouts. Nevertheless, the results of the work with the computer clearly show the differences between specialists and amateurs. A few years ago, many specialists were involved in order to produce professional printouts: a graphic designer, a typography specialist, an illustrator, a photographer, a touch up specialist and a reprographic specialist. With a computer and special software, anyone is able to produce a layout up to the data needed by the printing office. But depending on the lack of knowledge concerning the processes, techniques, and applications, the results will have less quality and will be more expensive.The term "desktop publishing" is commonly used to describe page layout skills. However, the skills and software are not limited to paper and book publishing. The same skills and software are often used to create graphics for point of sale displays, promotional items, trade show exhibits, retail package designs, and outdoor signs. DTP is the abbreviation of „Desktop Publishing“ which means the production of printouts like catalogues, brochures and newspapers on a computer with special software. Recently, additional new output media for electronic distributing, like web pages and PDF documents, have been included. The main task of DTP or rather DTP- applications is the combination of text- and picture elements (illustrations, photos) to a printable layout. The focus of these kinds of applications is the text- processing and arrangement.
    A wide range of related software tools exist in this field, including many plug-ins and tools related to the applications listed below.
    # Adobe InDesign
    # Adobe PageMaker, was Aldus Pagemaker
    # Adobe Home Publisher, was Aldus Personal Press, was Silicon Beach Personal Press
    # Advanced Print Publisher, formerly the 3B2 Publishing System
    # QuarkXPress
    # FrameMaker, now owned by Adobe
    # iCalamus for Mac OS X
    # Impression Publisher – RISC OS
    # Interleaf/QuickSilver
    # MemoryPress – DTP that allows online collaboration
    # Microsoft Publisher
    # Microsoft Word 2008 – This Word release contains a DTP mode
    # OvationPro – RISC OS
    # PagePlus SE (External link:
    # Pages
    # PageStream, formerly known as Publishing Partner
    # Prince XML, by YesLogic
    # Print Explosion, by Nova Development
    # Print Shop, originally produced by Broderbund
    # RagTime
    # Ventura Publisher, now owned by Corel and originally developed by Ventura Software
    # Xclamation
    # UltraXML, XML Dynamic Publishing Solution
    # Print MIS (, Solution provider for the printing industry
    # Business Builder for Print (

    About TCP/IP

    TCP/IP has become an almost universal standard in network communications. Networks of all sizes, and in particular the Internet, depend upon TCP/IP protocols to enable communications between different segments and devices. Some examples of where TCP/IP is used:
    The Internet, which facilitates
    communications between computers all over the world, and access to data and applications at geographically scattered sites (including the World Wide Web)
    * Intranets, which make information readily visible via a browser to users of a LAN or WAN, such as within a single corporation
    * Extranets, which share data between users within a group of companies, for example a supplier may create an Extranet with its major customers to facilitate sharing of information
    * Private networks: LANs and WANs where data is shared and e-mails are exchanged between members of a single organisation
    * Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) where remote users can be given access rights to make a dial-in connection via modem to the resources of a private network (usually protected by encryption).
    The wide use of TCP/IP means that you will need to understand the essentials of this group of protocols when installing and
    maintaining networked machines.

    Protection from computer viruses

    Viruses are programs intended to damage or destroy data in a computer system. They are called viruses because they are rapidly transmitted to other users, usually without their knowledge. Viruses are often located in a network’s software or in a computer’s RAM, and are
    triggered by certain events such as a time or date, or the user executing a program. RAM
    viruses are particularly destructive because every program that is executed will pass on
    the virus. The most widespread solution to viruses is preventative software. Preventative software checks for viruses before software is executed and is usually able to destroy the virus once detected. Virus detection software needs to be updated frequently as new viruses are created and identified. In order to prevent the spread of viruses, good practice dictates that only the System Administrator can load files onto the network. Care must be taken not to expose customer sites to risk of viruses.

    Network security

    A major concern of network management is data security. Maintaining LAN data security means:

    # maintaining data integrity

    # securing the LAN from unauthorized access

    # securing the LAN from computer viruses

    # ensuring the availability of network components and access.

    Because security is a primary concern and responsibility of network managers, you will not normally be given direct access to network settings and configurations when working on network printer installations.

    Data integrity
    The protection of a network’s data resource is achieved in a number of ways:
    # by the use of uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) to allow the network and servers long enough to keep running through minor power outages and to shut down gracefully during long outage
    # by providing redundant hardware, including redundant hard drives, so that secondary systems can take over in the event of the failure of the primary system
    # by regular backups of data, so that in the event of a loss of integrity data can be restored with a minimum of lost work.
    Protection from unauthorized access
    Most networks have a system allowing access to only authorised users. Security systems can
    allocate rights such as access to resources like applications, printers, directories and specific files. Normal security requires that users have a unique ID and password to access network resources. If an organisation wishes to grant an external user access to the network, a user ID and password will have to be issued, for a limited period of time.

    Wireless Networks

    Some environments or very large distances are physically difficult to cable. In this case a wireless solution may be viable. Wireless networks operate using microwave, radio or infrared communication technology. The logical topology of such systems is still typically Ethernet or Token Ring. Wireless LAN communications are governed by IEEE standard 802.11b
    Bluetooth wireless technology is a specification for short-range radio links between mobile PCs, mobile phones and other portable devices. It can be used for both voice and data and operates in a globally available frequency band. Bluetooth is the result of a collaboration
    between 9 major communications and computing corporations (3Com, Ericsson, Intel, IBM, Lucent, Microsoft, Motorola, Nokia and Toshiba). This has made it an industry standard which is being rapidly adopted by other manufacturers.
    Infrared Data Association (IrDA)
    The Infrared Data Association (IrDA) is a trade association of more than 150 computer and
    telecommunications hardware and software suppliers, including Hewlett-Packard, Apple
    Computer, AST, Compaq, Dell, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Motorola, Novell, and others.
    The IrDA standard allows devices to communicate with each other via an infrared port running at up to 115.2 Kbps. IrDA ports can be created by attaching an infrared adapter (such as the Adaptec AIRport) to a serial or parallel port. IrDA provides a universal standard for LAN connections, peripherals, telephones and for communicating with other devices such as
    digital cameras and kitchen appliances.

    Printing Options For a Microsoft Word Document Template

    In the third of this article series on how to set up a technical document template by using Microsoft Word we'll explain the various printing options you can choose from to print your MS Word technical document.

    While your document template is open, select File > Page Setup to display the Page Setup dialog box.

    Click and select the PAPER tab.

    Click PRINT OPTIONS button to display the PRINT tab and the print options available. This is the same dialog box that you can also reach by selecting File > Print and then selecting the Options button from the main menu.

    DRAFT OUTPUT option, when selected, will print a fast and low-quality draft copy with no images. The blocks where the images are located will appear as blank spots.

    I recommend you select the UPDATE FIELDS and UPDATE LINKS options to make sure you have the latest values for the date and time fields as well as the most current document links before your document is printed.

    BACKGROUND PRINTING option, selected by default, allows you to continue working while a long document is sent to printer and printed on the "background."

    PRINT POSTSCRIPT OVER TEXT option, when selected, prints any PostScript-coded document components (like the watermark, for example) on top of the body text, instead of underneath it.

    REVERSE PRINT ORDER option, when selected, reverses the print order of the pages; prints the last page first and the first page last.

    XML TAGS option, when selected, prints all the XML tags in your document, whether they are normally visible or not.

    BACKGROUND COLORS and IMAGES option, when selected, prints any background images or colors (like in a watermark) underneath the body next.

    FIELD CODES and HIDDEN TEXT options, when selected, print any field codes and hidden texts that you might not want printed normally. NOTE: If you do not select it, the CONTENT of the field code will still print without, however, printing the field code itself.

    DOCUMENT PROPERTIES option, when selected, prints ( as a new section at the end of the Word document) all the information you have entered into the DOCUMENT PROPERTIES dialog box by selecting File > Properties from the main menu.

    NOTE: If you enter more than one Comments field through selecting Insert > Field from the main menu, all comments will print in the main body of the document but only the LAST comment will be printed in the Document Properties block.

    Click OK when you're done with the printing options to return to the PAPER tab.

    Click OK once again to close the Page Setup dialog box.